HEBREW TRANSLITERATION ENGLISH MEANING Kabbalah That Which is Received Esoteric dimension of Torah; a reference to the inherited tradition, especially when it is placed with another word such as shalshelet hakabbalah, the chain of tradition, or kabbalat Shabbat, the traditional ushering in of the Sabbath.
Also refers to a particular credential for doing something within the context of a religious community, particularly for the Shochet, who ritually slaughters animals for food.
This term also refers to the general mystical tradition in Judaism. See further: Kabbalah Index
Kabbalat al Mitzvot Acceptance of the yoke of the Commandments Acceptance of commandments as binding Kabbalat Shabbat Welcoming the Shabbat The opening section of the Shabbat evening service Kaddish (pl. Kaddishim) Kaddish is a prayer sanctifying G-d's Name which is used to signal passage from one stage to another of the liturgy. There are five different types of Kaddish; the text is determined by when it is recited, why, and by whom; it can be recited up to twelve times in a traditional worship service Kaddish De Rabbanan The Rabbis' Kaddish Used as an epilogue to the study of rabbinic texts, containing a prayer for the welfare of all students of the Torah Kaddish D'itchadata Burial Kaddish Said only at the gravesite, immediately after interment. It includes a paragraph that refers to resurrection of the dead and a restoration of the Temple Kaddish Shalem Whole [or Complete] Kaddish Includes the prayer requesting G-d to accept all of the reciter's heartfelt prayers Kaddish Yatom Mourner's (or Orphan's) Kaddish Recited for the first year after interment, making it the primary prayer of the bereaved throughout the generations; does not mention death at all. The Reform movement introduced a variation of the Kaddish that includes an extra paragraph mentioning death, but it feel to disuse and was eventually excluded. In some non-Germanic Orthodox synagogues, everyone rises for Kaddish Yatom. In German-based Orthodox synagogues and in many conservative synagogues, the congregation sits. The reform movement instituted a movement-wide policy of standing. Often, parents will refer to a child as kaddishel - the one designated by Jewish law to say kaddish for them after their death; it has become a somewhat endearing term of affection Kadosh Holy; Separate Kadoshim Holy Ones Kaf - K Eleventh letter of the Hebrew alphabet Kahal; Kehillah (Klal Yisrael) Congregation; Assembly; Community; Gathering Assembly of the people of Hashem; Used to refer to the corporate Jewish community of medieval Europe Kalev Caleb See further: Kalev Index Kallah Bride Late Hebrew tractate dealing with marital relations Kal Vachomer An a fortiori inference, and a fundamental principle of rabbinic exegesis. This is a rule of logical argumentation by means of which two cases are compared, one lenient and the other more stringent. The Kal Vachomer principle asserts that if the law is stringent in a case where we are usually lenient, then it will certainly be stringent in a more serious case Kanaanim Canaanites Kapparah This Yom Kippur custom is based on the idea of ransom, one life for another. It rests on the same ritual as the scapegoat ritual from the Temple period. After reciting from the Book of Iyov (33:23-24), a rooster (for men) or a hen (for women) is swung three times over the heads of the penitent and the following is said: "This is in exchange for me (us, you), this is instead of me (us, you), this is ransom (kapparah for me (us, you). This rooster will go to its death, but I (we, you) will go forward to a good life and into shalom." Money or other living things are used as well; alternately this is called among Ashkenazi Jews shluggen kapparos Kapporet Seat of Atonement The Covering of the Holy Ark Karet Cut Off A divine punishment (of a short life) for serious transgressions Kasher (al. Kosher) Fit; Proper Ritually fit for consumption or use Kashrut The body of Jewish dietary laws governing what is and is not kosher Kavanah Intention; Devotion Inner concentration during prayer; One's heartfelt direction in prayer, used to refer to the immediate feelings or response, in contradistinction to keva Kedushah Sanctification; Holiness The sanctification, in the liturgy, "Holy, Holy, Holy is Hashem Tzevaot, the whole earth is full of G-d's glory..." In the prayer, G-d is hallowed in the assembly of people. Prayer proclaiming G-d's holiness, recited on Shabbat and festivals Kedushat Yisrael Sanctification of Israel; Holiness of Israel Kehunah Priesthood See further: Kehunah Kelim Utensils First tractate in the Mishnah order of Toharot, which discusses the ritual uncleanliness of vessels (cf. VaYikra 11:32; BaMidbar 19:14) Kematnat Yado The principle of not coming before G-d with empty hands, but according to one's means (from Devarim 14:22; 16:1). It refers originally to the sacrificial system and the pilgrimage festivals Keriah The act of tearing the garment either at graveside or at the beginning of the funeral service, depending on the custom of the congregation; this act is referred to as "cutting keriah." In some non-Orthodox communities, ribbons are attached to the garment and cut instead of clothing Keritot Excisions Seventh tractate in the Mishnah order of Kodashim, dealing with the punishment of Karet Keruv (pl. Keruvim) Cherub Cherubim in the Sanctuary; a type of heavenly being Kes The religious officiate or priest among Ethiopian Jews, often called a chacham Keter Crown Keter Torah Crown-like ornament for the Torah Ketivah VeChatimah Tovah May you be inscribed with a good seal A greeting used during Rosh Hashanah to Yom Kippur Ketubah (al. Ketuvah; pl. Ketubot) Marriage contract Traditional Jewish marriage contract, which spells out the contractual responsibilities of the groom to the bride; Ketubot Second tractate in the Mishnah order of Nashim, dealing primarily with the money to be received by a wife in case of divorce or widowhood Ketuvim Writings The third and last division of the Jewish Tanach (TaNaKh), including large poetic and epigrammatic works such as Tehillim and Mishlei and Iyov as well as miscellany of other writings (Shir HaShirim, Rut, Eichah, Kohelet, Ester, Daniel, Ezra-Nechemya, Divrei HaYamim) Keva Fixed Referring to those prayers that are fixed in word or time by Jewish law or custom Kibbutz A communal settlement in modern Yisrael Kibbutz Galuyot Ingathering of the Exiles Kiddush Sanctification The Sanctification ritual performed on Shabbat and Festivals consisting of liturgical text recited over a full goblet of wine. For example, the Shabbat Kiddush tells how G-d completed creation on the sixth day and then rested; we thank G-d for giving us Shabbat by which to remember creation and the Exodus and for choosing the Jewish people to be an am segulah, a special people. Kiddush HaChamah (Alt. Birkat HaChamah) A special prayer giving thanks to G-d for the sun; recited when the cycle of the heavenly bodies completes itself, at spring equinox, every twenty-eight years Kiddush Hashem Sanctification of the Divine Name One who dies as a Jewish martyr is said to have died "Kiddush Hashem." To suffer martyrdom rather than be faithless to the Jewish religion is the supreme example of Kiddush HaShem. A Jew must so conduct himself/herself that his/her actions increase reverence for G-d's Name and that none should bring the Divine Name into disrepute. Yisrael must be a holy people because Yisrael has been sanctified by G-d and bears His holy Name. The deeper theological meaning of Kiddush HaShem is that G-d as He is in Himself is unknown and unknowable. G-d only becomes manifest in human life when human beings acknowledge Him by acting in such a way that His being is relevant to and influences their daily life. See further: Kiddush HaShem Index Kiddushin Consecration; Set-apart; Betrothals Refers to the full wedding ceremony and the state of being married; Seventh and last tractate in the Mishnah order of Nashim, dealing with regulations reltated to marriage Kiddush Lavanah The moon's renewal is associated with the restoration of Yisrael; this forms the guiding principle behind Rosh Chodesh; the prayer is said several days after the crescent of the moon has reemerged Kilayim Diverse Kinds Fourth tractate in the Mishnah order of Zeraim, dealing with the prohibitions of mingling different kinds of plants, animals, and clothing (VaYikra 19:19) Kinneret (Lake) Harp Sea of Galilee Kinnim Bird Nests Eleventh and last tractate in the Mishnah order of Kodashim, dealing with the regulations for the bringing of an offering after childbirth (VaYikra 12:8) Kinyan; Kinyan Sudder The Acquisition Through a Cloth A ritualistic ceremony by which the wedding contract is legalized through a transaction and exchange of goods, namely the handkerchief; A mode of acquisition, a formal procedure to render an agreement as legally binding. After the act of kinyan occurs, the object is legally the property of the purchaser Kippah (pl. Kippot) Headcovering; Skullcap Skullcap worn by Jewish men; symbol of respect and submission to G-d Who is above us. Also called a Yarmulke in Yiddish Kiruv From kiruv r'chokim (bringing close those who are distant). Used to refer to Jewish outreach of all kinds Kislev Ninth month on the Religious Hebrew calendar, third month on the Hebrew civil calendar Kisuy Saarot; Kisuy Rosh Hair Covering; Head Covering Masorah regards bare headedness as a form of nakedness, and nudity as one of pagan indecencies and an infraction of propriety in worship. The word "ervah" (nakedness) connotes shameful exposure, indecency, as well as improper behavior in general. In Devarim 23:15, the phrase ervat devar signifies "anything indecent." The Mishnah relates that a man once uncovered a woman's head in the street, and Rabbi Akiva told him to pay 400 silver pieces as compensation for the embarrassment he had caused her (Bava Kamma 8:6). In the Talmud, Yevamot 63b, there is nothing more abominable in the sight of G-d than the man who appears naked in public, without his head covered. The Sages did not walk four steps with an uncovered head (Shabbat 118b; Kiddushin 31a) and was looked upon as a mark of reverence for G-d (Shabbat 156b). During the era of the Temple, the kohanim wore a headdress in the form of a kind of turban while officiating (Shemot 28:37-39). The skull-cap worn for prayer and meals is called yarmulke (Slavic) or kippah (Hebrew). See further: Headcovering Index and Headcoverings for purchase Kittel Robe-like white garment worn by men under the Chuppah, during the High Holiday period, at the Seder, and when buried Kiyum Mitzvot The upholding or fulfillment of the Mitzvot Klal Yisrael Community of Israel The Entire Jewish People Knesset Assembly The legislative branch of the present-day Yisraeli government Knesset HaGadol The Great Assembly The main spiritual and legislative body of the post-prophetic era, numbering 85 or 120 Sages (depending on the source). Institutionalized many important liturgical practices (reading of Torah on Shabbat, Festivals, Mondays, and Thursdays; recitation of the Amidah two times daily; blessings before meals, etc) and the foundations of halachah Knesset Yisrael Assembly of Yisrael The Jewish people as a whole Koach Strength Kodashim Holy Things Fifth order of the Mishnah, consisting of eleven tractates that deal with the laws of ritual slaughter, sacrifice, and other Temple-related objects Kodesh HaKodashim Holy of Holies Kohen (pl. Kohanim) Priest The priest and his descendants, traditionally considered to be directly descended from Aharon. The Kohen is held to certain obligations and special ceremonies, and subject to certain restrictions, especially regarding marriage and funerals, in order to prevent his being tainted. Historically he was responsible to arrange for the Atonement of the sins of the community Kohen HaGadol The High Priest Kol Chamira The formula used to make null and void the Chametz not found, following the attempt to collect and dispose of it for Pesach Kol Dichfin The Pesach Seder begins with the formula, "Let all who are hungry come and eat..." Kol HaKavod All Honor Used idiomatically to express praise or congratulations for an achievement Kol HaNearim All the Children The final Aliyah during Simchat Torah reserved for children Kol Isha Voice of a Women Considered by the Rabbis of the Talmud to be distracting to men and thus lewd Kol Nidre (al. Kol Nidrei) All Vows Refers to both the opening prayer-chant and the evening of Yom Kippur. The prayer asks for release from all vows made henceforth as a historical protective device for Jews forced to make vows to other religions in order to save their lives; while no longer relevant, its haunting melody and memory binds us to the holiday, its mood, and our history Kol Tuv Everything good; All the best May you be blessed with everything good Kosher (Hebrew - Kashrut) Proper; Ritually Correct Dietary laws that regulate the life of an individual Jew. While kosher literally means fit, it can be used to refer to a ritual item that is ritually fit for use, as in a kosher Chanukiah. Glatt kosher is used today to refer to a generally higher or stricter standard of kashrut. Glatt literally means "smooth." It refers only to the lung - it must be perfectly smooth. According to "regular" kashrut laws, some blemishes of the lung are acceptable; by glatt standards, all and any blemishes render the lung (and, therefore, the whole meat) unfit. After inspecting the lung, the rest of the meat must still be inspected, as with "regular" kashrut Kotel From Kotel ha'Maaravi (Western wall). All that remains today of the second Beit HaMikdash (Temple) Kol Yisrael Arevim Ze Lezeh All Yisrael is responsible one for the other Jews are responsible for one another, hence, the tradition of Jews taking care of their own throughout the world, whatever the need Kof (al. Koof) - K (or Q) Nineteenth letter of the Hebrew alphabet Kutim Talmudic term for Samaritans; Refers to any person or group rejecting the Oral Law; A minor tractate in which the relationships among Samaritans, Jews, and Gentiles are discussed