A B D E F G H I K Ch L M N O P R S Sh T Tz U V Y Z

Alef- Ayin
Echad One
Echad Mi Yodea Who Knows One? One of the songs at the end of the Pesach Haggadah, and is a cumulative riddle designed to keep the children awake till the end of the Seder service. By means of questions and answers, the fundamental Jewish beliefs and traditions are imparted in the 13 stanzas of this poem. Beginning with "Who knows One? I know One! One is our G-d in heaven and earth," referring to the revelation at Har Sinai
Ed Mist
Eden The name of paradise in the Torah in Bereishit 1; where Adam and Chavah were created
Eder Flock
Eder Katan Little Flock
Edei Reiyah Eyewitnesses
Edim Witnesses
Edut Sheker False testimony of false witnesses
Eduyot Testimonies Seventh tractate in the Mishnah order of Nezikin. Containing only mishnah, the books consists of personal testimonies of sages regarding legal rulings that they had received from their teachers
Efrayim Ephraim One of the two sons of Yosef, the son of the patriarch Yaakov. Also a town northeast of Yerushalayim
Egel Calf
Eglah Arufah The heifer-of-the-broken-neck Prescribed in case of an unsolved murder
Eidel Gentle; Courteous
Eicha (al. Eychah) How The book of Eicha (Lamentations). Tradition is that Yirmeyahu composed the book of Eicha, who was an eyewitness to the agony of Yerushalayim and the despair of its inhabitants during the invasion of Nevuchadnetzar in 586 BCE; The book consists of five lyric poems lamenting the destruction of the Holy City. Four of these are alphabetical acrostics, each beginning with one of the 22 successive letters of the Hebrew alphabet. The fifth poem, though it is not an alphabetical acrostic, has 22 successive letters of the Hebrew alphabet
Ein Keloheinu There is None Like our G-d Sung by Ashkenazi Jews at the end of the Shabbat and Festival morning service, and by Sefardim also on weekdays.

Rashi points out in his Siddur that Ein Keloheinu is recited on Shabbat and Festivals when the Amidah (Standing prayer) is limited to seven benedictions instead of the nineteen benedictions contained in the regular Shemoneh Esrei in order to bring the benedictions to a total of nineteen in the following manner: Ein Keloheinu forms the acrostic Amen, Baruch Atah (Ameyn, Blessed are You), alluding to a blessing and a response. Now, each of these three letters of amein is repeated four times in the chant Ein Keloheinu...totalling twelve

Ein Ketz Without End
Ein Sof (al. En Sof) Without Limit In Jewish Kabbalism, a designation for the divine -- "the unlimited one." elect.
Einayim Eyes
Eish (al. Esh) Fire
Eish Gehinnom Fire of Hell
Eish Katanah Small Fire
Eish Olam Eternal Fire
Eiver Min HaChai A limb from a living creature
El Adon G-d is Master An alphabetical hymn of the medieval period and generally attributed to the Yorde Merkavah mystics of the 8th century who applied their minds to theosophy. This hymn forms a part of the morning service for Shabbat and is a praise of Hashem who created the sun, moon and stars
Elef Shanim A Thousand Years
El Erech Apayim A prayer mentioning the 13 Divine Attributes of G-d
Elil (pl. Elilim) Idol
Eli My G-d; My Mighty One
Eliyahu HaNavi Elijah The Prophet Lived in the 9th century BCE during the reign of Ahav, king of Yisrael. Eliyahu is frequently referred to in Jewish literature as the promised precursor of the Mashaich and as the dynamic helper in distress and guiding teacher of the Sages. Whenever there was an unsolved legal or religious problem, the great teachers of Jewish tradition would end the debate by saying "this is for Eliyahu to solve." It was expected that all controversies and disputes which had accumulated in the course of time would be adjusted by him.

Tradition is that Eliyahu roams about the earth testing the hospitality and goodness of men and women. As the "angel of the covenant" (Malachi 3:1) and protector of children, he is believed to be the invisible participant at circumcisions. Seated at the right hand of the sandek, the person privileged to hold the child during the circumcision ceremony, invisible Eliyahu guards the infant from danger. Also, the symbolic chair known as "Eliyahu's Chair," set aside for the prophet, is left in position for three days, the dangerous period following the operation.

Traditions is also that Eliyahu will settle every doubtful case in Judaism shortly before the advent of Mashiach. Eliyahu's Cup of wine, which is placed on the Pesach Seder table, is linked with a Talmudic dispute as to whether four or five glasses of wine are to be used at the Seder celebration. Hence the extra cup, known as Eliyahu's Cup, conveys the thought that the question could not be solved by the authorities of the Talmud and must therefore wait for Eliyahu's decision.

Also refers to prayer-song recited during Havdalah

El Male Rachamim G-d is Full of Mercy A prayer for the repose of the soul of the departed, and is usually chantd with great solemnity at the graveside and at memorial services (Yizkor, Hazkarat Neshamot). The Sefardim call this prayer Hashkavah. This prayer is usually accompanied by offerings for charity and is recited by the reader of the Torah on Mondays and Thursdays.

The Yizkor service, which includes this prayer, is conducted on four occasions...Yom Kippur, Shemini Atzeret, last day of Pesach, and the second day of Shavuot

El Melech Neeman G-d is a faithful King A phrase immediately preceding the Shema' and has initial letters which speall out the word ameyn
Elohim Mighty One; G-d Exalted One; Sovereign; Deity. The Jewish conception of G-d and his relations to nature and human beings is a combination of both transcendence and immanence. "G-d is supramudane but not extramundane, exalted but not remote" (Moore, Judaism)

The traditional Jewish conception of G-d has been described as ethical monotheism. The G-d-idea demonstrates moral values to be adopted by man: "Even as He is gracious, so be you gracious; even as He is merciful, so be you merciful; even as He is holy, so be you holy" (Shabbat 133b) This is known as the imitation of G-d, the standard of man's morality is to be reflected in the divine attributes

Elohim Acheirim Other elohim (false gods)
Elohai Netzor A passage of personal requests recited upon the conclusions of the silent prayer
El Shaddai G-d Almighty
Elul Twelfth month of the Hebrew Cival calendar, corresponding approx. to August- September; 6th month of the Hebrew Sacred calendar.

The month of Elul is the period of preparation for repentance. It is customary to sound the shofar every day during this month, and to recite Tehillim 27 (Hashem is my Light) following the morning and evening services. During the last week of Elul, Selichot (prayers for forgiveness and mercy) are recited prior to the morning services, as soon after dawn as possible.

The four Hebrew letters of the word Elul () suggests the initials of the words ani l'dodi v'dodi li (I am my Beloved's and my Beloved is mine) in the book of Shir HaShirim 6:3, referring to the love between Hashem and His people. On the other hand, the reversed form of the Hebrew word Elul spells out lule', the word found at the end of Tehillim 27 which is recited throughout the month of Elul until Simchat Torah

The Mahril writes that once we enter the month of Elul, anytime a person writes a letter to someone, it is incumbent upon the writer to somehow allude to the fact at the beginning of the letter that he wishes and hopes that the person have a good year. Others write that expressing these wishes can be done at the end of the letter as well. The standard blessing is "K'tivah V'chatimah Tovah," literally "A good writing and sealing," meaning that the person should be written, so to speak, in the Book of Life, the Book of Good, and be sealed in that book as well

Em Mother
Emet Truth Truth is one of the pillars upon which the world rests Avot 1:18). The core of Judaism is the conviction that whatever is true is also good and beautiful. One of the 7 characteristics of a wise man listed in the Ethics of the Fathers is that of acknowledging the truth (Avot 5:9)
Emet Hashem Truth of Hashem
Emetdik Genuinely
Emet V'Yatziv True and Certain The initial words of the lengthy benediction following the Shema' of the morning service and ending with the words gaal Yisrael (Blessed are You, Hashem, Who redeemed Yisrael). The main theme of this passage, known as geulah (redemption), is the liberation of Yisrael from Egypt as well as a plea for deliverance in the future. Emet v'Yatziv is mentioned in the Mishnah among the prayers used in the Temple (Talmid 5:1).

Since the Shema' is the watchword of Yisra'el's faith, and it is the desire of every loyal Jew to have it on his lips when he dies, the passage Emet v'Yatziv connected with the Shema' contains a profession of faith (emunah = emet) in the declaration of the Oneness of G-d and the eternal validity of the Torah: "True it is that the eternal G-d is our King... His words are living and enduring, faithful and precious, forever and to all eternity, as for our fathers so also for us, for our children and future generations..." Reminiscent of the second paragraph of the Shema' are the words: "Happy is the man who obeys Your commands and takes Your Torah and Your word to heart"

Emunah Trusting Faithfulness The triangular interaction between daat (knowledge) of emet (truth) and bitachon (trust). Emunah contains the concepts of love towards Hashem with steadfastness, uprightness and faithfulness. Emunah denotes absolute belief in divine providence, in G-d's unfailing goodness, in His aid and deliverance in time of distress.

The Talmud Bavli, Sotah 48b, records a statement which reads: "Whoever has bread in his basket and says what am I going to eat tomorrow? only belongs to those who are little in emunah."

Emunot v'Deot Beliefs and Opinions One of the standard works of medieveal philosophy by Rav Saadyah Gaon (882-942), who was appointed to the exalted position of Gaon as the head of the Talmudic academy of Sura, Babylonia, when he was barely forty years old. In this book Rav Saadyah presents a summary of the most important divergent opinions about the ten cardinal principles of Judaism: Creation, G-d, Revelation, Divine Justice, Divine Commandments, Resurrection, Mashiach, Reward and punishment, Right Living.

He affirms that the Mashiach will deliver Yerushalayim from the enemy and settle there with his people forever

Enosh Man
En Sof Without Limit The Kabbalistic name for G-d as He is in Himself, utterly beyond all human comprehension. In the Kabbalah, G-d as He is in Himself produces, by a process of emanation, the ten Sefirot, the powers or potencies in the G-dhead through which En Sof becomes manifest in creation.
Epikoros (al. Apikoros) Unbeliever; Skeptic, an Agnostic; an Atheist The term epikoros is used in Talmud literature to denote one who denies the authority of the Torah
Eretz Yisrael The Land of Israel
Eretz Zarah Strange Land
Erev Evening Usually the evening before a holiday, e.g., Erev Shabbat is Friday evening, Erev Rosh Hashanah is the evening before the day of Rosh Hashanah
Erev Rav Mixed Multitude See Erev Rav Index.  I highly recommended the following book on the Erev Rav: https://www.gogumogog.com/html/body_the_erev_rav_book.html
Erev Shabbat The evening of the Shabbat, Friday evening
Erusha A betrothed virgin
Erusin Betrothal; Engagement
Eruv A symbolic wall, a legal innovation that encircles a city in order for it to be similar to a walled city; thereby the individual is allowed to carry things (generally prohibited) in its confines during Shabbat
Eruv Tavshillin Occasionally, Rosh Hashanah and other festival days may be backed up to Shabbat (i.e., the holiday falls on Thursday and Friday). This presents a problem because although one may cook on a holiday, the food must be eaten on that day. In order to be able to cook the Shabbat meal during the holiday (e.g., Friday afternoon), an eruv is created. It is a symbolic meal just as the eruv is a symbolic wall; by hard-boiling an egg and setting it aside with a legal formula, it is as if we have already prepared the meals, and all other cooking is considered insignificant and thereby permitted
Eruvin Amalgamations Second tractate in the Mishnah order of Moed, dealing with the laws of the eruv (a technical term for the rabbinic provision that permits the alleviation of certain Shabbat prohibitions)
Eshet Chayil (al. Eishet Chayil) Accomplished Woman; Woman of Valor The famous poem in praise of the good wife (Mishlei 31:10-31) has an acrostic arrangement in which the verses begin with the letters of the Hebrew alphabet in regular order. It describes the ideal Jewish housewife, who is trusted by her husband, obeyed by her servants, and admired by her people. She is kind to the poor and gentle to all. She is self-respecting and dignified. Husband and children praise her as the source of their happiness. It is a part of the Kabbalat Shabbat (Friday evening welcoming of the Shabbat) liturgy, prior to the Shabbat meal. "Nothing in ancient literature equals this remarkable attestation to the dignity and individuality of woman" (Abrahams)

Eishet Chayil

Ester Esther The book of Ester, one of the most cherished books in Jewish literature, is the last of the five Megillot (scrolls) that are part of the third division of the Bible, known as Ketuvim (Sacred Writings). Megillot Ester tells the store of a Jewish girl who used her influence as queen of Persia to save her people from a general massacre which Haman had plotted against them. It is a tale of plot and counterplot, showing the downfall of the arrogant and the vindication of the innocent.

Though the Name of G-d is not mentioned in the book, the author clearly implies that G-d used Mordechai and Ester as instruments for the deliverance of a persecuted people. On Purim the book of Ester is recited in the synagogue twice...evening and morning.


Etmol Yesterday
Etrog Citron Fruit One of the four species taken up in the Festival of Sukkot (Booths)--see Lulav. Ramban (Moses Nachmanides) points out in his commentary to VaYikra 23:40 that the tree which is called etrog in Aramaic is rendered hadar in Hebrew. Thus, the Scriptural command concerning the use of the four species (arbaah minim) during the festival of Sukkot, reads: "You shall take for yourselves on the first day the fruit of the hadar tree (etrog), the branches of date palms (lulav), twigs of a plaited tree (hadassim - myrtles), and brook willows (aravot); and you shall rejoice before Hashem, your G-d, for a seven-day period." This kind of citron known as etrog was a popular Jewish symbol in ancient times. It was to be found in synagogues, on coins, monuments, and graves.

The Midrash explains the symbolical significance of the four plants which are held together during part of the morning services of Sukkot: The etrog has both taste and fragrance; the palm has taste but no fragrance; the myrtle has frangrance but no taste; and the willow has neither taste nor fragrance. Similarly, some Jews have both learning and good deeds; some have learning but no good deeds; other have good deeds but no learning; still others have neither learning nor good deeds. Therefore, G-d said: Let them all be combined together, and they will atone one for the other (VaYikra Rabbah 30:12)

Etz (pl. Etzim) Tree
Etza Advice; Wisdom
Etz Chayim (al. Eitz Chayim) Tree of Life
Etzem Actual
Etz Hadaat Tree of Knowledge
Etz Teenah Fig Tree
Evarim Members; Limbs
Evar Katon Small Member
Eved House Slave; Servant
Even Stone
Ezer Help
Ezrah Aid

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