Midrash on Bereishit

Six things preceded the creation of the world. Some were actually created, and others came up only in G-d's thought as what was to be created. Torah and the throne of glory were created.

The creation of the fathers, Yisrael, the Temple, and the name of the Mashiach came up only in G-d's thought.

Rabbi Ahavah son of Rabbi Ze'era said: So, too, repentance. And some say: Also the Garden of Eden and Gehenna.

It is said in the name of Rabbi Samuel son of Rabbi Isaac that the thought of creating Yisrael preceded all else.

Had not the Holy One foreseen that after twenty-six generations Yisrael would accept the Torah, He would not have written in the Torah: "Command the children of Yisrael" (BaMidbar 5:2) or "Speak to the children of Yisrael" (Shemot 25:2).

Rabbi Bannai said: The world and the fullness thereof were created only for the sake of Torah.

"I was in the mind of the Holy One," says the Torah, "like the overall design in the mind of a craftsman."

In the way of the world, when a king of flesh and blood builds a palace, he builds it not according to his own whim, but according to the idea of an architect. Moreover, the architect does not build it out of his own head; he has [a design]--plans and diagrams to know how to lay out the chambers and where to put in wicket doors. Even so the Holy One looked into the Torah as He created the world.

Rabbi Zutra bar Tobiah said in the name of Rav: The world was created by means of ten capacities and powers: By wisdom, by understanding, by reason, by strength, by rebuke, by might, by righteousness, by judgment, by loving-kindness, and by compassion.

"Hashem G-d made earth and heaven" (Bereishit 2:4). A parable of a king who had cups made of delicate glass. The king said: If I pour hot water into them, they will [expand and] burst; if cold water, they will contract [and break].

What did he do?

He mixed hot and cold water, and poured it into them, and so they remained unbroken.

Likewise, the Holy One said: If I create the world with the attribute of mercy alone, its sins will be too many; if with justice alone, how could the world be expected to endure? So I will create it with both justice and mercy, and may it endure!

The Sages taught: The school of Shammai says, Heaven was created first and the earth was created afterward, for it is said, "In the beginning G-d created heaven and earth" (Bereishit 1:1).

But the school of Hillel says: The earth was created first and heaven afterward, for it is said, "In the day that Hashem G-d made earth and heaven" (Bereishit 2:4).

The school of Hillel said to the school of Shammai: According to you, a man should build the upper story of the house first and the lower story afterward, for in the verse "It is He that builds His upper chambers in the heaven, and hath founded His [lower] vault upon the earth." (Amos 9:6)

The school of Shammai replied to the school of Hillel: According to you, a man should first make a footstool and then make the throne, for in the verse "The heaven is My throne and the earth is My footstool." (Yeshayahu 66:1)

But the Sages say: Both were created at one and the same time, for it is said, "Yea, My hand has laid the foundation of the earth, and My right hand has spread out the heavens; when I called to them, they stood up together." (Yeshayahu 48:13).

In the name of the Sages, Rabbi Yochanan said: In creation, heaven was first; in being brought to completion, earth was first.

Rabbi Tanhuma said, I will state the proof for this statement: the verse "G-d created heaven and earth" (Bereishit 1:1) shows that heaven was first in creation; while the verse "In the day Hashem G-d completed making earth and heaven" (Bereishit 2:4) shows that earth was first in being brought to completion.

Concerning the verse "And G-d said: "Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters'" (Bereishit 1:6), the Sages observed: When the Holy One commanded, "Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters," the middle layer solidified, and thus the separation between the lower heaven and the upper heaven of heavens came into being.

"Let there be a firmament." But was not heaven already made on the first day?

Rav explained: On the first day, heaven was in a form that was still fluid, but on the second day, it congealed. Hence, "Let there be a firmament" is to be understood as meaning: Let the firmament congeal, let it be covered by an overlay, let it be stretched out, let it become firm.

Rabbi Hanina said: Fire descended from above and licked the top surface of the firmament. Hence, whenever Rabbi Yochanan came to the verse "By His [fiery] breath heaven was smoothed" (Iyov 26:13), he would say, "Rabbi Hanina taught me well."

"And G-d called the firmament heaven (shamayim)" (Bereishit 1:8). Rav said: Shamayim is a composite of eish ("fire") and mayim ("water").

The Holy One took fire and water, and worked them into each other; and out of the two, heaven was made.

Another comment: Shamayim is so called because men wonder (mishtomemim) at it, saying: Of what (shel mah) is it composed? Of fire? Of water? It is an enigma!

Rabbi Simeon ben Yehozadak interrogated Rabbi Samuel bar Nachman, saying: Since I hear that you are a master of Aggadah, tell me how light was created.

Rabbi Samuel bar Nachman replied: G-d wrapped Himself in a white garment, and the radiance of His majesty illuminated the world from one end to the other.

This is a lovely midrash on Tehillim 104:2. It states: You covered yourself with light as with a garment, You spread out the heaven like a curtain.

"And G-d saw the light, that it was [for the] good, and G-d set it aside" (Bereishit 1:4). Rabbi Eleazar said: By the light that the Holy One created on the first day, one could see from one end of the world to the other.

But as soon as the Holy One observed the generation of the flood and the generation of the dispersion of mankind, and saw that their conduct was to be depraved, He proceeded to hide His light from them.

And for whom did He hide it? For the righteous in the time-to-come, just like a king who has a goodly treasure and sets it aside for his son.

And where did He hide the light? In the Garden of Eden.

"And G-d divided the light from the darkness" (Bereishit 1:4). Rabbi Berechiah said: Two men of renown, Rabbi Yochanan and Rabbi Simeon ben Lakish, took the words "And . . . divided" to imply actual division of domains and illustrated this interpretation by a parable:

A king had two chiefs of the guards who argued with each other. One said: I am to be in charge during the day. And the other said: No! I am to be in charge during the day. So the king summoned the first, saying to him: So-and-so, daytime is to be your domain; then he summoned the second: So-and-so, nighttime is to be your domain.

Likewise, "for the light G-d summoned the day" (Bereishit 1:5), saying, "Daytime is to be your domain"; "and for the darkness He summoned the night," saying, "Nighttime is to be your domain."

Why is "It was good" not written about the second day [of creation]?

Rabbi Samuel bar Nachman said: Because the disposition of the waters was not yet finished.

Consequently, "It was good" is written twice in connection with the third day, once about the disposition of the waters and a second time about the work that was begun and completed on that day.

A Roman noblewoman asked Rabbi Yose, "Why is 'It was good' not written about the second day?"

He replied, "But in fact, Scripture subsequently does include all the days in the words 'And G-d saw everything that He had made, and behold, it was very good.'"

She said, "Suppose six men came to you, and you gave to each of five one maneh, but you did not give one to the sixth, and then you gave a second maneh to all of them together. Would not each of the first five now have a maneh and one- sixth, while the sixth man would have only one-sixth of a maneh? I am still baffled."

At that, Rabbi Yose, retracting his own explanation, explained the matter in the same way as Rabbi Samuel bar Nachman.

Rabbi Simon, in the name of Rabbi Joshua ben Levi, told the parable of a king who had an excessively fierce legion, and he said: Since the legion is so fierce, let it not bear my name.

Likewise, the Holy One said: Since the generation of the flood, the generation of Enosh, and the generation of the dispersion of mankind will be punished by water, let not "It was good" be set down concerning water.

But Rabbi Hanina explained: Because separation [that is to say, disunion] was brought into being on the second day, as indicated in "Let [the firmament] separate water from water" (Bereishit 1:6), [the statement "It was good" does not occur].

In this regard, Rabbi Tavyomi noted: If there is no mention of "It was good" about an act of separation conducive to the world's improvement and well-being, all the less should such words occur in describing occasions leading to the world's disarray.

On the third day, the earth was as flat as a plain, and the waters covered the entire surface of the earth. And when out of the mouth of the Almighty there issued the command "Let the waters be gathered together . . . and let the dry land appear" (Bereishit 1:9), mountains and hills rising up in different parts of the earth emerged over its entire surface, so that it became pitted with many valleys.

As the core of the earth rose up, the waters rolled down into the valleys [and became seas]. Forthwith, swelling with pride, the waters rose in order to cover the earth as at the beginning.

But then the Holy One rebuked them, subdued them, placed them beneath the soles of His feet, and measured out their extent with His own span, so that they should neither enlarge nor diminish. And as a man makes a hedge for his vineyard, so He made the sand into a hedge for the seas, so that when the waters rise and see the sand before them, they turn back and recede.

Rabbi Simon said: There is not one herb without its own constellation (mazzal) in heaven, which slaps it and says, "Grow!"

Rabbi Simeon ben Pazzi pointed out a [seeming] contradiction between two parts of the same verse. The verse begins by saying, "And G-d made the two great lights" (Bereishit 1:16), and then goes on to speak of "a greater light . . . and a lesser light."

[However, this is what happened]: The moon dared say to the Holy One, "Master of the universe, is it possible for two kings to wear the same size crown?"

The Holy One answered, "Go, then, and make yourself smaller."

But the moon protested, "Master of the universe, must I make myself smaller merely because I suggested to You something that is sensible?"

The Holy One conceded, "Very well. Go and rule by day as well as by night."

"And the stars" (Bereishit 1:16). Rabbi Aha said: [The association of the stars with the moon] will be understood by the parable of a king who had two administrators, one ruling in the city and the other ruling over the [rest of the] province.

The king said: Since one was willing to be diminished to rule only in the city, I decree that whenever he goes forth, the city council and the populace shall go forth with him, and whenever he returns, the city council and the populace shall return with him.

So, too, did the Holy One: Since the moon was willing to be diminished and to rule by night, I, [said G-d], decree that when she comes forth, the stars shall go forth with her, and when she returns, the stars shall return with her.

"And G-d said: 'Let us make man'" (Bereishit 1:26). With whom did He take counsel?

Rabbi Ammi said: He took counsel with His own heart. He was like a king who built a palace with the counsel of an architect. When he saw the palace, it did not please him. At whom was he indignant? Was it not at the architect? Hence, "and it grieved Him at His heart" (Bereishit 6:6) [with which He had taken counsel at the making of man].

Rabbi Hanina said: He consulted the ministering angels.

Rabbi Berechiah said: When the Holy One was about to create Adam, he saw both the righteous and the wicked who were to issue from him. So He said: If I create him, wicked men will issue from him; if I do not create him, how are righteous men to be born?

What did the Holy One do? He diverted the way of the wicked from before His sight, partnered the quality of mercy with Himself, [saying to it, "Let us make man], and then created him.

Rabbi Simon said: When the Holy One was about to create Adam, the ministering angels formed themselves into groups and companies, some of them saying, "Let him be created," while others urged, "Let him not be created."

Thus it is written, "Love and truth fought together, righteousness and peace combated each other" (Tehillim 85:11).

Love said, "Let him be created, because he will perform acts of love."

Truth said, "Let him not be created, because all of him will be falsehood."

Righteousness said, "Let him be created, because he will do righteous deeds."

Peace said, "Let him not be created, because he will be all strife."

What did the Holy One do?

He took truth and cast it to the ground, as is said, "Thou cast down truth to the ground" (Daniel 8:12).

The ministering angels dared say to the Holy One, "Master of the universe, why do You humiliate Your seal? Let truth arise from the earth."

Hence it is written, "Let truth spring up from the earth." (Psalm 85:12)

The elder Rabbi Huna of Sepphoris said: While the ministering angels were arguing with one another and disputing with one another, the Holy One created Adam and then said: What are you arguing about? Man is already made.

Rabbi Samuel bar Nachman said in the name of Rabbi Jonathan: At the time when Moshe was engaged in writing the Torah, he had to set down what happened on each of the six days of creation.

When he got to the verse "And G-d said: "Let us make Adam,'" (Bereishit 1:26) Moshe dared ask, "Master of the universe, why do You give heretics their opportunity?"

"Write, O son of Amram," G-d replied: "Whoever wishes to err, let him err."

The Holy One then added, "O Moshe, this Adam whom I created by Myself--will I not cause both greater and lesser men to issue from him?

Accordingly, whenever a great man is inclined to seek approval [for an important act] from one who is less than he and holds back, saying, 'Why should I seek approval from one who is less than I?' he will be told: Learn from your Creator, who created the creatures above and the creatures below [on His own], yet when He was about to create Adam, He took counsel with the ministering angels."

Rabbi Hila differed: No taking counsel is implied here. What happened will be understood by the parable of a king who was strolling at the entrance to his palace when he saw a clump of earth lying about. So he said: What shall we do with it? Some might suggest: [Use it to build] public baths; others might suggest: Private baths. But I will make a statue-like figure out of it! Who is to hinder me?

Man was created alone in order to teach you that if anyone causes a single soul to perish from Israel, Scripture imputes to him the destruction of the entire world; and if anyone saves alive a single soul in Yisrael, Scripture imputes to him the saving alive of the entire world.

Again, [man was created alone] for the sake of peace among men, that one might not say to his fellow, "My father was greater than yours;" and that heretics might not say, "There are many ruling powers in heaven."

Another reason: To proclaim the greatness of the Holy One. For if a man strikes many coins from one die, they all resemble one another; in fact, they are all exactly alike.

But though the King of kings of kings, the Holy One, blessed be He, fashioned every man from the die of the first man, not a single one of them is exactly like his fellow.

Hence, each and every person should say, "The world was created for my sake."

The Sages taught: Man was created as a single.

And why so?

That the heretics (originally meant Jewish Christians) might not say: There are many ruling powers in Heaven. (First meaning: the "alone " refers to G-d, not the man....)

Another answer is: For the sake of the righteous and the wicked; that the righteous might not say: ‘Ours is a righteous heredity.'

And that the wicked might not say: ‘Ours is an evil heredity.'

(We're all responsible for our actions because we all came from the same source. Knocks off the Presbyterian and Calvinist theologies...2,000 before they were developed...)

Another answer is: For the sake of [the different] families, that they might not quarrel with each other.

Now, if at present, though but one was [originally] created, they quarrel. how much more if two had been created!

(Sibling rivalry is enough!)

Another answer is: Because of robbers and plunderers: If at present, though but one was originally created, people rob and plunder, how much more had two been created.

And why are men's faces not like one another? Lest a man see a beautiful dwelling or a beautiful woman [belonging to someone else] and say, "she is mine."

Man was created on the eve of Shabbat, [the last of all created beings]. And why?

Lest heretics say, "The Holy One had [Adam as] partner in His work of creation."

Another answer: Should a man's opinion of himself become overweening, he may be reminded that the gnat preceded him in the order of creation.

Another answer: So that immediately [after his creation] he could proceed to fulfill the precept [of hallowing the Shabbat].

Another answer: So that he might at once go to the banquet.

Thus, G-d was like the king of flesh and blood who built a palace, decorated it, and made arrangements for a banquet [so that all would be in readiness when his guests arrived].

"Then Hashem G-d formed (va-yitzer) man" (Bereishit 2:7). There were two formations, a formation partaking of the nature of beings below and a formation partaking of the nature of beings above.

Rabbi Tifdai said in the name of Rabbi Aha: The celestial beings were created in the image and likeness [of G-d], but they do not reproduce, while the terrestrial beings reproduce but were not created in the image and likeness [of G-d].

Said the Holy One: I will create man in My image and likeness, [and thus he will partake] of the [character of] celestial beings, but he will also reproduce [as is the nature] of terrestrial beings.

Rabbi Tifdai said further in the name of Rabbi Aha: The Holy One also declared: If I create man out of celestial elements, he will live [forever] and not die; if out of terrestrial elements, he will die and not live [in a future life].

Therefore I will create him out of both celestial and terrestrial elements. If he sins, he will die; if not, he will live in a future life.

"And G-d saw everything that He had made, and [said], Would that at all times it were very good."

Rabbi Hama bar Hanina told the parable of a king who built a palace. When he looked at it, it pleased him, and he said: O palace, palace, may you find favor in my eyes at all times just as you find favor in my eyes at this moment.

So, too, the Holy One said to His world: My world, My world, may you find favor in My eyes at all times just as you find favor in My eyes at this moment.

"And on the seventh day G-d finished" (Bereishit 2:2). Isn't this statement curious?

Geniva explained it by the parable of a king who made a bridal chamber, which he painted and decorated. Now, what did the bridal chamber still lack?

The bride to enter it.

So, too, what did the world still lack?

The Shabbat.

Ten things were created on the eve of the Shabbat twilight.

They are:

1) the mouth of the earth [which engulfed Korach]
2) the mouth of the well [which supplied Israel with water in the wilderness]
3) the mouth of the ass [which spoke to Balaam]
4) the rainbow [given as a sign after the flood]
5) the manna [dropped from heaven]
6) the rod [of Moshe]
7) the shamir [a mythical creature employed for splitting stones at the building of the Temple]
8) the shape of the written characters [on the Tablets]
9) the writing
10) the Tablets

And some say: also the destructive forces [that afflict mankind], the grave of Moshe, and the ram of Avraham our father.

Rabbi Judah said: Also the original tongs, for, as he put it, [in human conception] tongs can be made only by means of other tongs.

Rabbi Jeremiah ben Eleazar said: With everything that was created during the six days of creation, G-d made certain stipulations, about which Scripture says, "I, even My hands, have stretched out the heavens, and all their host have I commanded." (Yeshayahu 45:12)

I commanded the Sea of Reeds to split apart for Yisrael; I commanded heaven and earth to be silent before Moshe; I commanded the sun and the moon to stand still before Yehoshua; I commanded the ravens to feed Eliyahu; I commanded the heavens to open before Yechezekel; I commanded the fish to spew out Yonah; I commanded the fire to do no hurt to Chananya, Mishael, and 'Azarya; I commanded the lions not to harm Daniel.

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