A B D E F G H I K Ch L M N O P R S Sh T Tz U V Y Z

Torah from Heaven
Taanit Fast Ninth tractate in the Mishnah order of Moed, dealing with the designation of fast days in time of drought
Taanit Ester The Fast of Ester Observed just before Purim from dawn to dusk, in commemoration of Ester's fast, which she had imposed on herself in preparation of going uninvited before the King. Ester had also told Mordechai to instruct all the Jews to fast and pray so that she might succeed in her mission
Taanug Pleasure
Tachanun Prayer of Supplication A prayer requesting grace and forgiveness from G-d, recited daily in morning service, except on Shabbat, festivals, and joyous occasions like weddings
Tachat Bottom; Beneath; Under In Shemot 19:17 it states that Moshe escorted the Bnei Yisrael to a position of tachat at Mt. Sinai when they received the Torah and entered into the covenant. The Sages taught that Hashem lifted up Mt. Sinai and that it hovered over the people. If they entered into the covenant by faith the mountain would become a Chuppah (marriage canopy) to them, if not the mountain would be removed and cast into the sea
Taharah Ritual purification of the deceased in preparation for burial--washing of the dead body
Taharat HaMishpachah Family Purity Refers to the body of laws designed to keep the family ritually pure, particularly regarding the sexual relations between husband and wife; most of the relevant rituals are directed toward the woman
Tahor Ritual Purity; Clean Passing from a state of tameh (impurity) to tahor (purity) according to Torah involved bringing the prescribed sacrifices and purification through tevillah (immersion), a washing by water in a mikvah
Takanah (pl. Takanot) Any regulation that supplements the law of the Torah. These regulations came into being to regulate the observance of many mitzvot and, in particular, civil matters. Some regulations are attributed to Moshe (public reading of the Torah), to Ezra (courts are to sit every Monday and Thursday), and so on. Also, a regulation that creates a new legal category, or a law that permits something that was once prohibited (cf. Gezerah)
Tachrichim Shrouds White garments used to wrap and dress the deceased for burial; designed so as not to distinguish between rich and poor at death
Tallit (al. Tallis) Prayer Shawl Outer Religious garment that holds the commanded tzitzit (fringes) (BaMidbar 15:38); reminiscent of the robe-like garment worn by our desert ancestors. Four tzitzit are attached to remind us of our responsibility to G-d; worn at morning prayer. It is traditional for the male to be buried in his tallit, but with its fringes cut off
Tallit Katan (Yiddish "Tallis Koten") Small tallit Small four-cornered undergarment that has the tzitzit upon the corners; also called arba kanfot. Traditional Jews were underneath their clothing and worn like the Tallit to remind us of our responsibilities to G-d
Talmid (pl. Talmidim, fem. Talmidah) Student; Taught one; Disciple
Talmid Chacham (fem. Talmidah Chachamah) Wise Student; Student of a Sage Person learned in Talmudic study; generally refers to a wise pupil
Talmud Study; Learning From the Hebrew word "lamed"--to study. An encyclopedic collection of legalistic interpretations based upon the Mishnah, but also containing homiletic material, some esoteric in nature.

The Talmud Yerushalami (The Jerusalem Talmud), was composed in Yisrael and redacted at the end of the 4th century.

The Talmud Bavli (The Babylonian Talmud) which was compiled by the Babylonian Sages and redacted around the year 500 CE and is the more prevalent and more authoritative of the two, much more extensive and accessible to analysis.

Both have as their common core the Mishnah collection of the Tannaim, to which are added commentary and dicussion (Gemara) by the teachers (Amoraim) of the respective locales. Gemara thus has also become a colloquial, generic term for the Talmud and its study

Talmud Torah Study of Talmud Studies at a traditional Jewish public school
Tam, Rabbenu Jacob ben Meir, 12th century French scholar, grandson of Rashi. An outstanding rabbinical authority of his day, his commentary often attempted to correct textual corruptions in the Talmud
Tameh Ritual Impurity; unclean Being in the state of ritual impurity; a fundamental concept in Jewish law, where an entire order of the Mishnah (Tohorot) is devoted to the subject. A ritually impure person may not touch or eat a holy object or enter the Temple. As a human corpse is the most severe category of ritual impurity, religious law prevents a person who comes into contact with a corpse from having contact with the ancient Temple
Tamid Perpetual Offering Ninth tractate in the Mishnah order of Kodashim, it deals with the laws related to daily burnt offerings (Shemot 29:38) and Temple organization and priestly duties
Tammuz Fourth month on the Hebrew religious calendar; 10th month on the Hebrew civil calendar
TaNaKh (al. Tanach) The Hebrew Scriptures. An acronym for Torah (The Teaching--Instruction, referring to the Pentateuch), Nevi'im (The Prophets), and Ketuvim (The Writings)
Tanin Serpentine Monster The livyatan (leviathan) is a tanin
Tanna (pl. Tannaim; adj. Tannaitic) Repeater; Reciter A Jewish Sage from the period of Hillel (around the turn of the era) to the compilation of the Mishnah (200 C.E.), distinguished from later Amoriaim. Tannaim were primarily scholars and teachers. The Mishnah, Tosefta, and halachic Midrashim were among their literary achievements
Tanya It Has Been Taught The first word and title of the fundamental work of Chabad Chassidut written by Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi (1745-1812)
Tarfon, Rabbi 1st century Tanna who took a leading part in the discussions at Yavneh
Targum (pl. Targumim) Translation; Translated version; Interpretation Traditionally the name given to the Aramaic translation of the Scriptures that was read to the populace in Babylonian periods. Except for some interpolations and paraphrases, the Targum Bavli, also known as Targum Onkelos, is a very faithful translation. Targum Yerushalmi is less faithful to the text. Since the inspired text itself could not be changed or altered in even the smallest way, the Targum opened the way for the insertion of explanations and clarifications which amplified the text
Taryag Mitzvot (or Taryag) 613 Mitzvot prescribed by the Torah
Tashlich To Send; To Cast Out A ceremony held near a flowing body of water on the first day of Rosh Hashanah (on the second day, if the first day is Shabbat), during which individuals empty their pockets and symbolically cast their sins upon the water
Tav - T 22nd letter of the Hebrew alphabet
Tayku Let It Stand Let it stand, that is, the question raised in the previous passage remains unsolved. The Hebrew acronym stands for the words Tishbi yitaretz kushyot u shealot (the Mashiach will ultimately solve all difficult questions)
Techelet Blue, Azure Cord The color that one strand of the tzitzit (fringes) are to be according to Scripture
Techinnot Private Devotions Men of piety composed their private devotions, techinnot, which they recited as meditations during the regular worship services in keeping with the warning of the Jewish Sages against regarding prayer merely as a matter of dull routine, but rather as a supplication for divine mercy (Avot 2:18). Examples of such techinnot are quoted in the Talmud (Berakhot 16-17).

The techinnot were created in various Jewish vernaculars (Judeo-Greek, Judeo-Italian, Judeo-Spanish). Since the 16th century, many techinnot appeared in Yiddish, specially designed for women who were not expected to be well-versed in Hebrew, the language of Yisrael's prayer life. Hence the name techinnot is used as a general title for the supplementary Siddurim published in Yiddish for women. In them are expressed hopes, sorrows and joys, of countless hearts.

The Yiddish devotional prayers, like the Yiddish Tzeenah Ureenah, were most widely read by women and still retain their vogue. They incorporate the essence of a life which is distinctive and unlike any other. Achad Haam asserted:

"One word, one expression, taken from the Yiddish speech of the people, is more effective than ten abstract ideas."
Techiyat HaMetim Resurrection of the Dead Yisrael's doctrine of messianic redemption and resurrection is supported by the following Scriptural passage: "I will open your graves and bring you out of your graves" (Yechezkel 37:12). "Your dead shall live, their corpses shall rise; awake and sing, you who lie in the dust" (Yeshayahu 26:19). These verses have been interpreted in the sense of a national restoration, surpassing all expectation. In a striking and beautiful vision, Yechezkel is transported into a valley full of dry bones. As he prophesies to them they come together into complete skeletons, which become covered with flesh and skin. Then the wind blows upon the inanimate bodies and they come to life. This prophecy refers to a revival of the dead nation, of which the exiles seemed to be the scattered remains.

The idea of resurrection is expressed in the Amidah prayer, where G-d's omnipotence is recounted:

"You revive the dead... You cause the wind to blow and the rain to fall..."

Rain is considered as great a manifestation of the divine power as the resurrection of the dead (Taanit 2a). In the preliminary morning service, the following talmudic passage (Berachot 60b) is to be found in the daily Siddur:
"My G-d, the soul which You have placed within me is pure. You have created it; You have formed it; You have breathed it into me. You preserve it within me; You will take it from me, and restore it to me in the hereafter... Blessed are You, O Hashem, who restore the souls to the dead."

This prayer is interpreted as an expression of gratitude for awakening from sleep to new life
Techum Shabbat Sabbath Limit Concerning the food eaten by the Yisraelim during the 40 year sojourn in the Wilderness, the Torah states: "Hashem has given you the Shabbat...let no man go out of his place on the seventh day" (Shemot 16:29). A double portion of Mann was collected on the sixth day (Friday), so that the people could observe the Shabbat by resting from the labor of gathering food.

The law of techum shabbat, the boundary beyond which one must not walk on the Shabbat, which is 2000 cubits outside the town limits, is based on the traditional interpretation of Shemot 16:29. The Shabbat limit is reckoned in every direction of the settlement, and can be extended by another 2000 cubits by means of an eruv techum (intermingling of Shabbat limits): a quantity of food, enough for two meals, is placed 2000 cubits from the town boundary, so as to extend the techum shabbat by that distance. This legal fiction is allowed only when one desires to perform a mitzvah, such as brit milah, at a place which is distant from the outskirts of his town by a double techum Shabbat

Tefillah (pl. Tefillot) Prayer Stems from pallel which means "to judge," the literal meaning of its reflexive form "hitpallel" means "to judge oneself." Prayer in Hebraic thought connotes self-examination and is why prayers dwell on introspection and self-judgment; The Amidah, the standing prayer, is often referred to as Ha-Tefillah, "The Prayer."
Tefillah Zakah Prayer of Purity Recited on Yom Kippur before Kol Nidrei
Tefillin Phylacteries; Prayer boxes Leather boxes worn as an "ot" (visible sign) on the forehead and arm arranged to form the Hebrew letter (shin) to represent the Name Shaddai, a Name of G-d. These are worn by Torah observant Jewish men during weekday morning (Shacharit) prayer containing specially written parchments of Devarim 6; not worn on Shabbat or holidays. These are a sign of the covenant between Hashem and the Jewish people. In Yiddish, to don them is to lei tefillin. Specifically they are known as shel rosh (for the head) and shel yad (for the arm)
Tehillim Praises (Psalms) The book of Tehillim consists of 150 hymns and is the first book in the third division of the Bible known as Hagiographa (Sacred Writings). The Hebrew title of this book, Tehillim, means praises. Tehillim is songs of praise arranged to be sung to the accompaniment of musical instruments.

Tradition ascribes Tehillim to King David. On all possible occasions, Tehillim have been used as a source of help, inspiration, and spiritual expression. They have been the voice, as well as, the companion, of humanity. They were the daily food of the Jew. Even before they could become a mainstay and inspiration to others, they were such to the Jew. They sprang from the soul of the Jew, from his experience and his needs. Volumes might be written on what part and influence Tehillim have had in Jewish life as well as in the life of humanity in general

Tekiah Solid, long blast of the Shofar. Tekiah gedolah is the giant, even longer blast, with an extra push at the end of the note
Teku Let It Stand Used in talmudic discussion, occurs at the end of an inquiry when no definite answer is obtainable despite all attempts. Teku means: the question remains undecided. According to some, teku is instead based on an old tradition that Eliyahu, the forerunner of the Mashiach, will settle every doubtful case shortly before the coming of the messianic leader
Tekufot The four seasons of the year are known as the four tekufot or cycles. They are:
1) Tekufat Nisan, the vernal equinox (March 21), when day and night are equal, the beginning of spring.

2) Tekufat Tammuz, the summer solstice (June 2), when the day is the longest in the year.

3) Tekufat Tishri, the autumnal equinox (September 23), when autumn begins and the day again equals the night.

4) Tekufat Tevet, the winter solstice (December 22), the beginning of winter, when the night is the longest of the year.

Temimut Sincerity
Temurah Exchange Sixth tractate in the Mishnah order of Kodashim, dealing with the regulations concerning the exchange of an animal consecrated for sacrifice (VaYikra 27:10, 33)
Tenaim The marriage engagement is formalized by tenaim, the signing of a legal document that sets forth the following conditions: the commitment to marriage, the financial resources each partner will bring to the marriage, the responsibility of each family to the other, and the penalties to be paid if either side were to break off the engagement
Terefah U-Nevelah The term terfah, now denoting any food forbidden by Jewish tradition, is used in the Torah for meat of animals killed by beasts of prey, "You shall not eat any flesh that is torn by beasts in the field" (Shemot 22:31). This prohibition related to the general law which forbids the eating of blood, the principal carrier of life, reserved for a symbolic purpose in the sacrificial system. The flesh of an animal killed otherwise than by shechitah, or ritual slaughtering, would not be properly drained of blood.

Nevelah is an animal that has died of natural causes. The flesh of such an animal cannot be thoroughly drained of blood. The Torah declares, "Since the life of every living being is its blood...you shall not eat the blood of any meat... Anyone who eats of an animal that died of itself (nevelah) or was killed by a wild beast (terefah)...shall wash his garments, bathe in water, and be unclean until evening. If he does not wash them nor bathe in water, he shall bear his guilt" (VaYikra 17:14-16)

The prohibition of carrion is understood to apply to all meat of animals incorrectly slaughtered; the prohibition of animals torn by beasts includes meat of animals revealing diseased or injured parts on post-mortem inspection. Hence, terefah refers to an animal afflicted with an organic disease, the discovery of which, after slaughtering, makes it forbidden; nevelah denotes whatever has become unfit through faulty slaughtering.

The term tarfut, as opposed to kashrut includes also meat-milk mixtures.

"No meat may be cooked in milk, except meat of fish...and no meat may be served on the table together with cheese, except the meat of fish..." (Chullin 81)
Teruah The blast of the Shofar, an alarm-like sound consisting of nine rapid notes that total approximately the length of a Tekiah
Terumah Offering The Portion of one's crop which is given to the Kohen as a gift
Terumot Heave Offerings Sixth tractate in the Mishnah order of Zeraim, dealing with heave offerings due to the Kohen from both Yisrael and the Levi (BaMidbar 18:8, 25ff)
Teshuvah Repentance; Lit. "Turning" A Hebrew term for repentance, denoting a return to G-d after sin, as opposed to meshuvah which means back turning, apostasy.

Maimonides devotes 10 chapters to teshuvah. Defining perfect repentance, he offers this illustration:

"When an opportunity presents itself for repeating an offense once committed, and the offender, while able to commit the offense, nevertheless refrains from doing so because he is penitent, and not out of fear or failure of vigor... If however, a person only repents in old age, at a time when he is no longer capable of doing what he used to do, though this is not an excellent mode of repentance...he is accepted as a penitent. Even if one transgressed all his life and only repented on the day of his death...all his iniquities are pardoned... Repentance and Yom Kippur secure forgiveness only for transgressions against G-d... But transgressions against fellow men...are never pardoned till the injured party has received the compensation due to him and has also been conciliated... If a person has wronged another by the use of mere words, he has to apologize and beg his forgiveness..."
Tet - T The 9th letter of the Hebrew alphabet
Tevah Coffin According to Jewish law is to be all wood and unadorned; also used to refer to Noach's ark
Tevet Tenth month of the Hebrew religious calendar; 4th month of the Hebrew civil calendar
Tevhel A forbidden sexual act which Torah declares to be an utterly detestable perversion
Tevilah Immersion Ritual immersion in a Mikvah for purposes of purification and conversion. The three types of ritual washing (ablution) mentioned in Scriptural and Talmudic literature are:
1)Complete immersion (tevilah) in a natural water-source or in a specially constructed mikveh, prescribed for married women following their periods of menstruation or after childbirth as well as for proselytes (gerim) on being accepted into Judaism.

2) Washing the feet and hands, prescribed for the Kohanim in the Temple service at Yerushalayim.

3) Washing of the hands (netilat yadayim) before sitting down to a meal and before prayer, upon rising from sleep and after the elimination of bodily wastes, also after being in proximity to a dead human body.

Judaism has always regarded bathing and physical cleanliness as implicitly important because, as Hillel taught, the human body reflects the divine image of G-d. In honor of the approaching Shabbat, bathing on Fridays has ever been a universal Jewish custom. Ritual bathing, on the other hand, symbolizes spiritual purification, as well as Tohorot HaMishpachah (purity of married life), and is not necessarily connected with physical cleanliness.

Maimonides' symbolical significance of tevilah:

"The person who directs his heart to purify his soul from spiritual impurities, such as iniquitous thoughts and evil notions, becomes clean as soon as he determines in his heart to keep apart from these courses, and bathes his soul in the water of pure knowledge" (Mikvaot 11:12)
Tevul Yom One Who has Bathed that Day 10th tractate in the Mishnah order of Tohorot, dealing with ritual uncleanliness that remains until sunset after ritual bathing (VaYikra 15:7-18)
Tevunah Comprehension
Teitsch Chummash See Tzeenah Ureenah
Teivah The Ark of Noach
Tiferet Beauty
Tikkun Rectification; Repair A state of perfection and order, as in olam hatikun (the world of rectified order) which is synonymous with the world of atzilut; The spiritual process of retrieving the fragments of Divine light trapped within the material realm, unconscious of G-d's presence, thereby restoring the world to its initially intended state of perfection-accomplished through the performance of mitzvot
Tikkun Chatzot Midnight Service A prayer of lamentation recited at midnight over the destruction of the Beit HaMikdash (Temple). Instituted by the Sefed Kabbalists of the 16th century, are known as Tikkun Chatzot (midnight service). they were designed to keep alive the memory of the Temple that was destroyed, resulting in galut ha-Shechinah (exile of the Divine Glory).

The Safed mystics prescribed for Tikkun Chatzot the reading of Tehillim 137, 79, 42, 43, 111, 51, 126, as well as petitions and lamentations connected with the loss of Jewish independence.

Chatzot is a noun from the Hebrew root CHaTZaH, which means to "cut into two." Chatzot halaylah refers to the mid-point of the night, the moment that splits the night in two. It is true that the mind of man cannot grasp the exact moment that marks the end of the first half of the night and the start of the second. But G-d knows. "And it was midnight, and G-d struck all the firstborn in the land of Egypt" (Shemot 12:29). Exactly at midnight. The nekudah - the invisible "point" - of Chatzot marked the moment of redemption for the entire Jewish People, and throughout Jewish history we find that Chatzot was a blessed moment, a time of miracles for the tzaddikim - Avraham, Sarah, Yaakov, Daniel and Mordechai - and one that heralded the fall of the wicked - Pharaoh, Avimelech, Lavan, Sancheriv, Nevuchadnetzar.

Chatzot is a moment of grace, the start of redemption - every single night. Chatzot marks the beginning of a unique two-hour period of divine favor in the small hours of each night. As a time of favor, Chatzot calls for something more than just sleeping through. It is a unique opportunity for spiritual rectification...to repair leTaKeN. A repair is TiKuN...Tikkun Chatzot, The Midnight Service.

King David knew of the preciousness of Chatzot. He wrote, "I will rise up at midnight to give thanks to You for Your righteous judgments" (Tehillim 119:62) The Talmud relates:

"A harp was hung above David's bed, and at the mid-point of the night a north wind would come and blow on it, and the harp would play by itself. He would get up at once and engage in Torah study and song until dawn" (Berachot 3b)
Tikkun L'Korim Readers' Guide A printed and bound volume showing the text as it appears in the Torah Scroll, alongside a version printed in modern fonts with vowels (nekudot) cantillation (reading/singing) marks (trop)
Tikkun Lel Hoshana Rabbah The seventh day of Sukkot is ushered in by spending the night of Hoshana Rabbah in reciting Tikkun Lel Hoshana Rabbah, an anthology containing the whole of Devarim and Tehillim, as well as passages from Kabbalistic works. The book of Devarim (which concludes the Five Books of Moshe) is recited because the annual cycle of the Torah readings is completed at the close of the Sukkot festival. The five divisions of the book of Tehillim are recited in allusion to the tradition that King David spent his nights in meditation and study
Tikkun Lel Shavuot In observance of Shavuot, and in preparation of the revelation of the Torah, with which the holiday is associated, this is an all-night study period that traditionally included portions from all the Torah and the first and last Mishnah of each tractate of the Talmud
Tikkun Olam Improvement of the World Correcting the world, repairing the world; an action promoting social justice; A Jewish way to say the world needs fixing, and that we are obligated to fix it
Tikkun Sofrim An unvocalized copy of the Torah, printed in book form, to be used for practice Torah reading is known as Tikkun Sofrim
Tishah B'Av (al. Tishebov, Yiddish: Tisheboov) Ninth of Av A twenty-five hour fast to commemorate the destruction of the ancient first and second Beit HaMikdash in Yerushalayim and the loss of national Homeland; referred to as a "black fast" three other things were to have happened on that day as well: the generation of the desert were told that they would not enter Kenaan and would die in the desert; Bar Kochva's fortress was captured by the Roman's; and the city of Yerushalayim was plowed under and rendered uninhabitable
Tishri (al. Tishrei) Seventh month of the Hebrew religious calendar; 1st month of the Hebrew civil calendar. Tishri corresponds to September-October and consists of 30 days. The first and second days are Rosh Hashanah; the third is Tzom Gedaliah, the fast commemorating the assassination of Gedaliah, who was governor of Judea after the destruction of the first Temple; the tenth is Yom Kippur; the fifteenth begins the festival of Sukkot, followed by Shemini Atzeret, the eighth-day festival, and Simchat Torah.

Tishri is referred to as the month of festivals. Its Scriptural name is Etanim (1Melachim 8:2)

Titchaddesh May You Ever Become Refreshed and Restored The popular term Titchaddesh is applied on the occasion of a new garment acquired or worn by a friend. The expression tevalleh u-techaddesh is a similar wish extended to friends upon seeing them wear new garments. Literally, its meaning is: May you wear it out and replace it with a new one
Todah Thank you; Thanks The thanksgiving offering in the Beit HaMikdash
Todah Rabbah Thank you very much
Tohorot Purifications Sixth and last order of the Mishnah. The name is a euphemism for ritual uncleanliness and all the tractates of the order deal with laws of impurity. The tractates in the order include Kelim (vessel), Ohalot (tents), Negaim (leprosy), Parah (heifer), Tohorot (purifications), Mikvaot (ritual baths), Niddah (menstruating woman), Machshirin (preparations), Zavim (people suffering from secretions), Tevul Yom (immersed during the day), Yadayim (hands), and Uktzin (stems)
Tohorot haMishpachah Jewish Family Purity
Tohu Chaos; Without Form The primordial unrectified state of Creation. A desolation of surface
Toldot Generation; History
Torah Teaching; Instruction In genearl, Torah refers to study of the whole gamut of Jewish tradition or to some aspect thereof. In its special sense, "the Torah" refers to the "five books of Moshe" in the Hebrew Scriptures. (In the Koran, incidentally, "Torah" is the main term by which Jewish scripture is identified)
Torah Lishmah The 6th chapter of Ethics of the Fathers begins with the statement that whoever engages in Torah for its own sake merits many things; nay more, the whole world is worthwhile for his sake. He is described as a beloved friend, who loves G-d and mankind; he pleases G-d and mankind. The Torah invests him with humility and respect. Men are benefited by his counsel and sound wisdom, by his understanding and strength.

Torah Lishmah "for pure unselfish ends," a tannaitic expression on the subject of Torah study...that whoever engages in Torah for its own sake, it becomes to him an elixir of life; but if a man studies the Torah not for its own sake, it becomes a deadly poison (Taanit 7a). His learning will harm him, as a heavy rain harms the crop.

Another talmudic statement, however, reads:

"By all means let a man engage in the study of Torah and in the practice of good deeds, even if not for their own sake; eventually he will arrive at the stage of doing good for unselfish purposes (Pesachim 50b)

In his Mishnah Commentary, Maimonides points out:
"Since man is accustomed to act according to the good or the harm which may result, he loses nothing by shaping his conduct with a view to reward and punishment until, by habit and zeal, he arrives at an understanding of the truth and serves purely out of love. The human spirit is narrow and, while acquiring wisdom, hopes for other, more material advantages. In searching for truth, the goal is truth itself
Torah min haShamayim Belief in the divine origin of the Torah
Torah Misinai Torah from Mount Sinai Refers to the doctrine that the entire Torah, including the Oral Law, was given to Moshe at Sinai
Torah she-Bichtav Written Torah Specifically the first five books of the Hebrew Scriptures called the Book of Moshe. The Written Torah is synonymous with the 24 holy writings that make up the Tanach
Torah she-Beal Peh Oral Torah Tradition reports that the two forms of Torah, Torah she-bichtav and Torah she-beal peh, have existed side by side ever since the revelation at Har Sinai. The Oral Torah, which was not committed to writing during the centuries preceding the redaction of the Mishnah, was transmitted orally by a chain of Sages and carriers of tradition
Torah Or A reference apparatus for Scriptural quotations written by Rabbi Yehoshua Boaz
Tosafists Generation of Talmudic interpreters after Rashi. Best-known as exponents of pilpul, hair-splitting dialectical exegesis of Talmud
Tosafot Additions A school of talmudic scholars in France and Germany, continuing Rashi's work in the course of two centuries, composed critical and explanatory glosses in the Babylonian Talmud. The first of the Baale Tosafot were the sons-in-law and grandsons of Rashi as well as his immediate students, whose methods of interpreting the Talmud, by pointing out discrepancies in various parts and then harmonizing them, spread to Spain and England. All the Tosafot include quotations from earlier scholars such as Rabbenu Tam and Rashbam, the grandson of Rashi.

All printed editions of the Talmud are provided, as a rule, with the commentary of Rashi and the Tosafot of the tosafists, whose work extended to the end of the 14th century. Unlike Rashi's commentary, the Tosafot glosses are not continuous, but are attached to separate passages which present certain difficulties, including divergent readings of doubtful correctness. As additions to the commentary of Rashi, the Tosafot appear in the usual editions of the Babylonian Talmud on the outer margin of the pages

Tosefta Supplement; Addition The Tosefta is a work closely resembling the Mishnah, hence its name. It contains a large collection of tannaitic statements of the traditional law (Halachah). The Tosefta consists of six grand divisions or sedarim, each of which is subdivided into tractates, chapters, and paragraphs, analoguous to the Mishnah.

Thought the subjects treated in both Mishnah and Tosefta are practically the same, and the formulation of the basic Halachah is identical, the Tosefta aims at less terseness than the Mishnah and gives a more detailed version of the tannaitic teachings. It has been explained that the Mishnah is written with characteristic brevity as an aid to memory, omitting whatever is not absolutely necessary as to illustrations and text-proofs. The Tosefta, as a supplementary work, contains whatever is regarded as sufficiently important for further study of the Halachah traditions. hence, the Tosefta surpasses the Mishnah in size and contents.

Solomon Zeitlin has pointed out that, despite the various attempts to explain the composition of the Tosefta, the question of its authorship and compilation is sill unsolved. "Man of the halachot in the Tosefta are in contradiction to those recorded in the Mishnah; others are merely elaborations. Many halachot recorded in the Tosefta are not found in the Mishnah but in Baraitot in both Talmuds... The Tosefta, though studied by the Sages during the Middle Ages, was never held to be on a par with the Mishnah in authority..."

Tov Good
Tre-Asar The Twelve The twelve Minor Prophets of the Hebrew Scriptures. The name Minor Prophets, as compared with Major Prophets, does not refer to value but to volume - the length of the individual books. Since each of the these twelve books was very short, they were gathered into a single collection to safeguard their preservation. For this reason, they count as one book in the Hebrew Scriptures and are commonly known as Tre-Asar "The Twelve"
Treif (al. Treifah) Torn Food that is not ritually fit. Opposite of kasher (kosher)
Trope (al. Trop) (Hebrew - taamei hamikra) Cantillation Marks Yiddish for the special diacritical marks found in Masoretic editions of the Written Torah which indicates both how the words are to be sung during communal reading and how the sentences are to be punctuated
Tu BiShevat Arbor-Day; Fifteenth Day of Shevat The New Year of the trees; Tree planting and outing holiday (primarily for school children) to mark the approach of the new year, spring. Anciently, a day in regard to determining how fruit is to be tithed; the day upon which sap rises high into the tree and begins providing the fruit bearing branches with nutrients from the ground
Turim Rows The code of Jewish law known as Arba'ah Turim (four rows) alluding to the four rows of precious stones mounted on the high priest's breastplate of judgment. Composed by Rabbi Jacob ben Asher (1270-1343).

The Turim, on account of which the author is referred to as Baal ha-Turim, is methodically arranged in four parts or rows:

1) Orach Chayim (way of life), dealing with the duties of the Jew at home and in the synagogue, day by day, including Sabbaths and festivala
2) Yoreh De'ah (teacher of knowledge), furnishing instruction in things forbidden and permitted, such as all phases of dietary laws
3) Even haEzer, encompassing the laws of marriage and family matters
4) Choshen Mishpat (breastplate of judgment), describing civil law and administration. The biblical place name Even ha-Ezer (stone of help) is mentioned three times in 1Shmuel 4:1; 5:1; 7:12). Ezer (help) alludes to marriage in Bereishit 2:18). The name Choshen Mishpat is borrowed from Shemot 28:15).
Based on Maimonides' Mishneh Torah in both contents and language, the Tur as the code is commonly called, became so popular that it was regarded as "the people's law book of the entire world." Eventually it became the basis of the Shulchan Aruch, consisting likewise of four parts bearing the same titles.