Positive Mitzvah Fifty

The Sukkot Musaf-offering

Requires Beit HaMikdash

BaMidbar 29:13 You shall bring a olah-offering, a fire-offering for a pleasing aroma to Hashem, thirteen young bulls, two rams, and fourteen yearling lambs.  They shall [all] be without blemish.

We are commanded to offer an Musaf-offering on Sukkot.  According to the Sages of the Talmud the seventy bullocks that were offered during the first seven days of Sukkot as the Musaf-offerings were designed to atone for the seventy nations of the world, so that all might have plentiful rain in the course of the ensuing year. (Suk. 55b); Rashi)

Also preserved in the Talmud, is the first-hand account of the various services performed on Sukkot in connection with the Rejoicing of Beit HaShoevah (Drawing of the Water):

"We have been taught, Rabbi Joshua ben Hananiah said, When we celebrated the Rejoicing of Beit HaShoevah our eyes never closed in sleep.  How was this?  The first hour [was occupied with] the daily morning sacrifice; from there [we proceeded] to prayers, thence to the Musaf sacrifice, then the prayers to the Musaf sacrifice, then to the House of Study, then the eating and drinking, then the Mincha prayer, then the daily evening sacrifice, and after that the Rejoicing of Beit HaShoevah [all night]." (Suk. 53a).